Architecture

 

Yard design

In the beginning of XX century all yards had got irregular outlines. The buildings were constructed with crude stacked stones. Above, at the walls, were arranged thorns or thorny bushes. Only the rich people fenced their yards with higher walls. Most of road gates were knitted of rods or forged boards.

The irregular shape of the yards was the reason for the twisting and tight little streets. Two or three yards away were little squares where cares passed each other.

The houses were built at the far end of the yard. Near by the houses were arranged the sheds, the sheep pen and the cattle-sheds, and in front of them – the granaries. The rich peasants possessed barns, and the gardens appeared rarely. During the summer, the yards became overgrown with weeds, crab-plums, pears, apples, elm-trees and acacia-trees. If you watch from a distance you could see that the village looks like a wild woodland. Despite the presence of stone in the yards, there were not stone paths in the yards, around the foundations of the houses and the granaries excepted.

The walls of the houses and the yards now also are constructed of stone, but in the gardens people cultivate any vegetable fruit resources, that is helped with the black earth in the village.

Home design

In recent times almost every home was dug into the ground in Old Slavic manner. They represent a big right-angled ditch, which was deep to а half-a- meter, with under walls of stone for undamaging the ditch. Corn stems, rush or reed were used for arranging the roof, just above the beams. In front south parts were room with a fireplace, where people lived, near by the room – furniture, and next to it the animals. The last houses of that sort were built in the period from 1902 to 1903.

To the end of the period of Turkish slavery the digging was avoided for preserving against the moisture. Those houses had got already three sections – a living room, a premises with fireplace, but without a ceiling and a front open part “jazla”. The walls were constructed again of stone, and the fence walls were knitted with rod and clay. The roof was made of stone slabs. In the living room the floor from the side of the windows was raised in 15-20 sm., which was the place for sleeping.

In the second half of 19 century people began to build two-storey houses that we can see nowadays. The first storey was dug in the ground, serving as a winter camp or a basement for cattle winter living, and the upper storey was for the owners. Consequently, the conception for the inhabitants in Gorna Lipnitsa started to change and they began to separate the animals into buildings, placed outside the houses for living, and the both floors were used wholly by the owners. In such a way is up till today – the houses are built of stone walls, which are high two floors, wholly adapted for living.

 
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